BACK TO EDGE-U-CATION TOPICSSee Also: Steel Element Information

Click a type of steel below to see its components or Click here to download a PDF of this steel chart (21k pdf). To download a two-page brochure with more details about steel Click here (14 meg pdf).

Hover over an element to read a description of how it is used in steel production.

1095

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.90-1.03   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
--
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.30-0.50
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.05
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

5160

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.56-0.64   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
0.70-0.90
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.75-1.00
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.15-0.30   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

52100

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.98-1.10   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
1.30-1.60
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.25-0.45
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.03
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.15-0.30   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

154CM

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.05   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
4   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

20CV

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.9   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
20
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.3   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.6   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
4

420J2

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.15   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
12.00-14.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

420 Modified

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.38   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.6
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.75   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.3

425 Modified

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.40-0.54   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.50-15.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.60-1.00   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.8   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.1

440A

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.65-0.75   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
16.00-18.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.75   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

440B

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.75-0.95   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
16.00-18.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.75   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

440C

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
17.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.5   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.3   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

440XH

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.6   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
16
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.8   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.35
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.45

8Cr13MoV

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.8   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.15   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.2
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.02
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.5   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.01
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.1

9Cr18Mo

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.95-1.10   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
16.00-18.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.8
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.40-0.70   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.8   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

A-2

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
5.25
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.85
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.35   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.25

ATS-34

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.05   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
4   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.03
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.35   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.02
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

ATS-55

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
0.4   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
0.2   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.6   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

AUS-6

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.55-0.65   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.00-14.50
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.49
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.10-0.25

AUS-8

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.70-0.75   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.00-14.50
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.10-0.30   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.49
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.10-0.26

AUS-10

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.95-1.10   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.00-14.50
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.10-0.31   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.49
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.10-0.27

BG-42

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.15   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
4   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.3   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
1.2

Cobalt Special

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.95-1.15   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
15.00-17.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
2.00-3.00   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.30-0.50
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.0-2.0   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.25
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.03
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.60-0.70   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.01
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.20-0.30   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.20-0.30

CPM™ 3V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.8   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
7.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
2.75

CPM 4V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.35   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
  Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
  Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
2.95   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
  Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.8   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
  Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
3.85

CPM 9V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.78   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
5.25
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.9   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
9

CPM 10V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
2.45   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
5.25
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.9   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
9.75

CPM 15V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
3.4   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
5.25
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.9   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
14.5

CPM M4

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.4   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
4
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
5.25   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.55   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.06
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
5.5   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
4

CPM S30V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.45   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
2   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
4

CPM S35VN

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.38   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
0.5
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
2   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
3

CPM S60V(440V)

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
2.15   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
17
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.4   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
5.5

CPM S90V(420V)

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
2.3   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
9

CPM S110V

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
2.9   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
15.25
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
2.5   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
3
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
2.25   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.6   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.2   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
9.1

CPM® Cru-Wear®

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.15   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
7.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.6   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
1   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
2.4

Cru-Wear®

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.1   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
7.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
--
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.6   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
1.15   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
2.4

CTS™ B52

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.98-1.10   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
1.30-1.60
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.25-0.45
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.15-0.30   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

CTS B75P

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.10-1.20   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14.0-15.0
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
3.80-4.20   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.3   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
1.00-1.50

CTS BD1

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.9   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
15.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.6
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.37   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.1

CTS BD30P

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.5   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
2   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.3   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
4

CTS 204P

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.9   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
20
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.6   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.65   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
4

CTS XHP

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.6   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
16
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.8   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.35
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.45

CTS 20CP

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
2.2   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.9   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
9.3

CTS 40CP

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.95-1.20   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
16.0-18.0
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.75   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

D-2

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.55   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
11.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.35
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.9   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.45   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.8

Elmax

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.7   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
18
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.8   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
3

GIN-1

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.9   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
15.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.6
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.3   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.02
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.37   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

H-1

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.15   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14.00-16.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
2
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
.50-1.50   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
6.00-8.00
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
0.1   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
3.00-4.50   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.03
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

Hitachi Aogami Super Blu

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.40-1.50   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
0.30-0.50
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.20-0.30
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.30-0.50   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.03
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.10-0.20   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
2.00-2.50   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.5

K390

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
2.47   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
4.2
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
2   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
  Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
3.8   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
  Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.55   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
1   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
9

LC 200 N

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.3   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
15
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.95   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.5
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
0.5   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
--   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

M-2

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
4.15
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
5   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.3   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
6.4   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
1.95

M390

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.9   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
20
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.7   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.6   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
4

MBS-26

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.85-1.00   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.00-15.00
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.30-0.60
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.15-0.25   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.04
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.65   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.01
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

MRS-30

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.12   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.6   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.25

N690Co

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.07   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
17
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
1.5   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.1

O-1

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.85-1.00   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
0.40-0.60
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
1.00-1.40
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.3
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.5   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.5   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.3

PSF27

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.55   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
12
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
  Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
  Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.75   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
0.3   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
  Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
1

Sandvik 12C27

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.6   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
13.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.4
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.03
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.01
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

Sandvik 12C27 Mod.

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.52   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14.5
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.6
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
--   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.25
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0.01
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
--

Vascowear

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
1.12   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
7.75
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.3
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.6   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
1.2   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
1.1   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
2.4

VG-10

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.95-1.05   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
14.50-15.50
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
1.30-1.50   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.90-1.20   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.03
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.6   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.10-0.30

W-1

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.70-1.50   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
0.15
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.10-0.40
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.2
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.10-0.40   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.5   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.1

W-2

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.85-1.50   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
0.15
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.10-0.40
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
0.1   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.2
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.10-0.40   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.15   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.15-0.35

X-15TN

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
0.42   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
15.55
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
--   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
--
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.46
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.7   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
0.3
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
0.21   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
0.02
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.23   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
0
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
--   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
0.29

ZDP-189

Carbon
  • Increases edge retention and raises tensile strength.
  • Increases hardness and improves resistance to wear and abrasion.
(C)
3   Chromium
  • Increases hardness, tensile strength, and toughness.
  • Provides resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Above 12% and it yields what is generally known as Stainless Steel.
(Cr)
20
Cobalt
  • Increases strength and hardness, and permits quenching in higher temperatures.
  • Intensifies the individual effects of other elements in more complex steels.
(Co)
Trace   Niobium
  • Niobium (Nb) aka Columbium. Improves strength and toughness. Provides corrosion resistance. Improves grain refinement and precipitation hardening.
(Nb)
Trace
Copper
  • Increases corrosion resistance.
(Cu)
--   Manganese
  • Increases hardenability, wear resistance, and tensile strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
  • In larger quantities, increases hardness and brittleness.
(Mn)
0.5
Molybdenum
  • Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness.
  • Improves machinability and resistance to corrosion.
  • Prevents high temperature creep. Helps to retain fine grain sizes.
(Mo)
1.4   Nickel
  • Adds strength and toughness.
(Ni)
--
Nitrogen
  • Used in place of carbon for the steel matrix. The Nitrogen atom will function in a similar manner to the carbon atom but offers unusual advantages in corrosion resistance.
(N)
--   Phosphorus
  • Improves strength, machinability, and hardness.
  • Creates brittleness in high concentrations.
(P)
--
Silicon
  • Increases strength.
  • Deoxidizes and degasifies to remove oxygen from molten metal.
(Si)
0.4   Sulphur
  • Improves machinability when added in minute quantities, but can decrease toughness.
(S)
--
Tungsten
  • Adds strength, toughness, and improves hardenability.
(W)
0.6   Vanadium
  • Increases strength, wear resistance, and increases toughness.
  • Limits grain size.
(V)
Trace